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Monday, April 23, 2012

SURFACE WIRING AND PVC CONDUIT CIRCUIT


Objectives  :
  • Wiring and accessories installation of lamp controller circuit using 2 way switch and photocell.
  • Wiring and accessories installation of socket ring circuit and air cond circuit.

Accessories :
  • 1.5 mm² & 2.5 mm² Single & Double PVC Cable
  • 4 mm² Single PVC Cable
  • Distrubution Board – MCB, ELCB dan Main Switch (isolator) & Copper Bar
  • Pendafour Lamp
  • Photocell             
  • 1 Way Switch
  • 2 Way Switch
  • 3 pin 13 A Socket (x4)
  • 15A Socket Outlet
  • DOL Starter
  • 40mm” high impact PVC conduit
  • Batton Holder, End-Box, inspection tee, insection elbow, intersection 4 way, intersection 3 way, saddler bar, cilling rose. 
  • Cut-out Fuse, Neutral Link & kwH base.   
  • Wire Connector
  • Aluminium/Plumbum clip

Tools :
  • Test Pen
  • Screw Driver & Philip Screw Driver
  • Measuring Tape
  • Cutter
  • Combination plier & side cutting plier
  • Wire cutter
  • Hacksaw
  • Cable Puller
  • Measuring ruler
  • Chalk
  • Conduit Bender
  • Warrington hammer
  • Cordless
  • Jack clip cutter
  • Aluminium Clip, Nail &Skrew
  • Multimeter

Wiring steps :
  • Students given brief explanations regarding wiring work by instructor.
  • Students were asked to understand the circuit, diagram and orders that given by the instructor.
  • Tools and materials that required for the wiring is identified.
  • Then tools and materials that required for the wiring is prepared.
  • After that, wiring baton is installed.
  • Followed by cable installation. The surface wiring should be done neatly, well arranged and straight.
  • Next, cables’ end point fitted with connector and circuit accessories are installed.
  • Lastly, the circuit are tested.
Material used :-

Cable :-
Required cable length as shown in table below:- 
 
The sizes of cable are depended on load and current flow of the circuit.   


Wiring Circuit Diagram
Actual Wiring Circuit

 
TOOLS & EQUIPMENTS














Discussion

1.         In surface wiring there are two main circuits. They are:-
a)      Cut-out unit circuit – mainly supervised and under maintenance by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB).
b)      Consumer End-Circuit – in-house circuit and owned by consumer. 

2.                  Cut-out circuit is supplied with 240V which is sufficient for the household usage. 415V single phase and neutral that tapped into cut-out circuit yields 240V 50Hz (single phase).

3.                  In surface wiring, neat, well arranged and straight wiring is essential because it is open air wiring and can be seen by bare eye. Due to open-air wiring, double PVC cable is used for safety.

4.                  Y or Star connection is used for domestic wiring ( house & premise with low electric usage).

5.                  Implementation of Polarization Test is to ensure 3 regulations below are obeyed. They are :-

a)                  Single phase switch, fuse and protection device are connected to phase cable only

b)                  Middle touch for Edison lamp holder and BS60238 standard screw types in circuit with earth cable have outer touch space or screw connected to neutral cable.
c)                  All the wiring connected to the dedicated socket outlet and accessories.
 
KESIMPULAN

Amali ini dijalankan adalah untuk mengenalpasti bahagian-bahagian utama di dalam kerja pendawaian 3 fasa iaitu isolator, pemutus litar arus baki, pemutus litar jenis kenit dan litar akhir.

Penggunaan warna yang berbeza pada setiap dawai adalah bagi memudahkan seseorang wireman dapat membuat pendawaian dengan tepat dan cepat untuk mengelakan sebarang kesilapan yang memungkinkan letupan ataupun kematian.

Alatan utama yang diperlukan untuk amali ini ialah pemutar skru kepala rata dan Philips, pena ujian, kotak alatan, playar gabung, pemotong sisi, playar muncung panjang, dan gerudi tanpa kord sebagai alat Bantu bagi mempercepatkan lagi kerja pendawaian dapat dijalankan.

Kerosakan biasa yang berlaku pada komponen, contohnya pada pemutus litar arus baki (ELCB) adalah disebabkan kesilapan penyambungan dawai-dawai pada bahan.
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