1.1 Background of the Study
Nowadays, the strength of family unit was deteriorated. This is because people are thinks and cares about themselves rather than other people especially to senior citizens. This situation was caused the numbers of senior citizens being sent to old folks homes increased every year. However, sending the elderly to old folk homes still not be accepted yet among Malaysian peoples. As stated by Maria Zain (2007) “Many Malaysian families may still not be at ease with the idea of sending old parents off to a care home”. This is because, Malaysian peoples would have closed relationship with family members. The young adult would take care of the elderly as responsibility a child to the parents, such as pay medical expenses and care about their sanitation needs. According to Conrad (2006) “Typical of the Asian culture, Malaysia have a long traditional of family values. Hence, providing care and financial support for the elderly are the general responsibility of the family”. Even the family spirits were high among Malaysia, but the numbers of senior citizens were increased year by year. The Johor Social Welfare Department is extremely concerned about this matter. Correspondents to this issue, a special committee has been set up to investigate the reasons and effects being sent senior citizens to old folk homes.
1.2 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study in this research were as follows:-
1.2.1 To identify the main reasons for sending parents to old folks homes
1.2.2 To find out the satisfaction levels of residents towards facilities provided in selected old folks homes
1.2.3 To investigate the effect of being sent to old folks homes
1.3 Significance of the Study
This research was important to be carried out because from the findings in this research people will know the value of family relationship. Beside that this research was important to inculcate people’s morality to love the elderly and make them happy in the rest of their days.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This research was conducted to investigate the reasons and effect being sent the senior citizens to old folk homes. There are hundred and fifty of respondents who are the residents in old folk homes in five different old folk homes throughout Johor state. The data collected via questionnaires were distributed to the respondents starting from January 2 to February 3 in this year.
The research instrument used to collect the data was questionnaires. A set of questionnaires contained of twenty questions which are divided into three sections. The different sections of the questionnaire were : i) main reason for sending parents to old folks homes, ii) satisfaction levels of residents towards facilities provided in selected old folks homes and the effect of being sent to old folks homes. A pilot study was conducted to assess the validity of the research instrument. The questionnaires were distributed to the hundred and fifty of respondents from five different old folks homes in Johor state. All the questionnaires were collected and answerable. The data were processed by entered into the computer using the SPSS software. The results were presented in frequency count.
3.0 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
This section discussed about the result founded in this research. The contents were divided into three subtopics that related to the objectives of the study.
3.1 Main Reason for Sending Parents to Old Folks Homes
This research was conducted to identify the main reason for sending parents to old folks homes and the result was illustrated in Figure 1.
Based on Figure 1, the main reason for sending parents to old folks homes due to children have no time to take care of parents with the highest percentage of 34 percent. The second higher is 23 percent because of parents are generally better taken care of by the nursing homes. Nineteen percent give the reason because of the children unable to cope financially while 11 percent give the reason of medical facilities are better in old folks homes. Whereas, 6 percent and 5 percent stated for reasons of parents have become burdensome (senile) and parents will have more friends in homes respectively. The rest percentage gives for to other reason.
Most of the children have no time to take care of the parents because they might be work in town while the parents stay in the village. Thus, the long journey were limits the time to take care of the parents as usual. According to Conrad (2006) “…….the effect of urbanization and migration for work have created a situation where young adult live apart, thus affecting their ability to provide family care for their parents”. The reason parent are generally better taken care of by old folks homes perhaps the nurse are good care of them by gives them food on time and gives the sanitation service properly. Children unable to cope financially become the third higher reason being sent the parents to old folk homes happened, perhaps they are having much of dependents and live in town with high living cost. If the parents have only a child, they might be faced a financial problem to give better care for their parents, because no other sibling to share for elderly parent’s expenses. In Conrad (2006) statement “……the decline in fertility and smaller family sizes has reduced the number of children to share both social and financial responsibility of care for elderly parents”.
As conclusion, the main reason for sending parents to old folks homes is due to children have no time to take care of parent.
3.2 Satisfaction Levels of Residents Towards Facilities Provided in Selected Old Folks Homes
This research was conducted to find out the satisfaction levels of residents towards facilities provided in selected old folks homes and the result was presented in Figure 2.
Based on Figure 2, the highest percentage of satisfaction levels among residents is dining facilities with 77 percent. Followed by the second higher is recreational facilities with 67 percent. The third higher percentage is safety facilities in the old folk homes with 64 percent. Whereas, 58 percent was satisfied with room facilities. Lastly the least satisfaction level among residents is regarding to medical facilities.
From the finding most of residents were satisfied with dining facilities in old folks homes. This is because, the nurse might be gave them the proper food with contained nutrition and suitable for old folk diet. Beside that, the respondents also satisfied with recreational facilities provided at old folk homes. The old folk homes perhaps organized a lot of healthy activities to fulfill their times. According to Maria Zain (2007) “……..most of nursing homes are equipped with exercise activities that help the elderly keep fit. Keeping fit curbs old age depression and the feelings of unworthiness”.
As conclusion, the highest satisfaction levels of residents towards facilities provided in old folks homes in dining facilities.
3.3 The Effect of Being Sent to Old Folks Homes
This research conducted to investigate the effect of being sent the elderly to old folks homes and the result was presented in Figure 3 which are divided into three major races.
Based on Figure 3, most of Chinese feel better companionship living in old folk homes with the highest percentage of 58 percent compare to other races. While Indian and Malay feel bored in old folk homes with the percentage of 66 percent and 64 percent respectively. For better taken care of, feel better at old folk homes than with children and feel happy was sighted by Chinese with the highest percentage of 56 percent, 48 percent and 30 percent. Whereas, Malay and India races were give the highest percentage for the effect of feel abandoned and lonely with the same percentage of 72 percent and 84 percent respectively.
From this finding, the suffer races living in old folk homes were Malay and Indian. This is because majority of them said they are feel abandoned and lonely living without family. This situation happened because, these two races having closed relationship in family institutions. When they are being sent to old folk they are feel abandoned and not important anymore. In contrast, the Chinese race feels good living in old folks homes. As stated in finding most of Chinese feel better companionship living in this place. This is because, Chinese is the independent people. They can survive without children and other family members. They are like to be with friends rather than children, to share their problem and feeling that can release their depression. According to Royal College Psychiatrists, commonly in elderly age they might be faced with depression disease. Sharing the problem with friend can release their depression.
As conclusion, the most effect being sent to old folks homes suffered by Malay and Indian races because they feel abandoned and lonely, while Chinese feel better companionship with friend in old folks homes.
This research was conducted to investigate the reasons and effect by sent senior citizens to old folks homes. From the finding it can be concluded that, the main reasons for sending parents to old folks homes is due to children have no time to take care of parents. While most of residents in old folks homes were satisfied with the dining facilities provided. Whereas, the effect of being sent the elderly parents to old folks homes were feel abandoned and lonely to Malay and Indian races but the Chinese was feel better companionship living in that place.
As conclusion, Malay and Indian were the most races suffered living in old folks homes without their beloved family members. This is because, these two races were tight in family relationship. They are very closed each other, thus when the children have no time take care of and send them to old folks homes, they feel abandoned and lonely without children and grandchildren beside them. In this stage, the elderly have no other material requested except for food. They are feel happy when somebody taken care of their food and eating together. The elderly parents would turn to be a litter baby that always needs the attention especially from their children.
Based on the findings and conclusions, here are several recommendations to be considered:
5.1 Most of elderly prefer to live at their own house compared to children house. Thus, for those who are working far away from their parent house might be difficult to taken care of their parents. In this situation, they can hire a maid to take care of parents and performed the house work. Children were not to worry about their parent’s safety with the maid assistant. They can visit their parents on weekend to make sure their parent in good condition.
5.2 For children who unable to hire the maid, can take other opportunity by sending parents to their sibling’s houses in rotation. In this situation, parents can spend the time with their child and grandchildren at home. They might not feel bored and lonely because everybody was care on them.
5.3 The old folk homes has the cater service where the people can send their parent in a day, which is during on office hours and taken back home at night. In this situation, parents can spend the time with their friend in old folk homes in a day and they can be together with the family in night. Thus, the elderly will have to be socialized with friends and at same time living together with family.
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