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Wednesday, October 19, 2011


4.1  Glossary of  Silk Terms

Charmeuse: A lightweight silk that is soft and drapes well. It has a smooth satin face and dull finish back.
Chiffon: A very light fabric in a plain weave, usually transparent.
Crepe: A lightweight fabric with a pebbly surface obtained by using high twist yarns.
Crepe de chine: A lightweight fabric with a plain weave, very drapey.
Douppioni or douponi: Refers to the thicker thread made when two silk worms nest together. More casual reference is to Indian made silk using doupioni thread, usually has a nice sheen, slub, and a slightly crisp hand.
Habutai: Smooth soft plain weave silk. Often referred to as China silk.
Momme: Japanese unit of weight (equal to 3.75 grams) used to describe weight of silk fabrics. (The numbers increase with the increase weight.)
Noil: Actually refers to fiber length, but is casually used to refer to silk fabric made from short fibers. The fabric is slightly rough to the touch and may have specks of irregularities of fiber that add to its appeal.
Organza: A light, thin, transparent stiff fabric.
Pongee: A thin tan-colored silk fabric.
Shantung: Silk woven from wild silk, has slubs, and a subtle sheen.
Tussah: Refers to silk fabric made from wild silk rather than cultivated silk. Usually has many slubs and takes a less intense dye appearance

4.2   Standard silk & silk imitation fibres

Fibre: Silk, rayon, acetate.
Weave: Broken ribbed weave.
Characteristics: Fabric has granular texture achieved by the short broken ribs in the filling direction. It is a rich soft-looking, fine fabric.
Uses: Men's dress ties, cumberbunds.

Fibre: Silk.
Weave: Crosswise rib (plain or twill weave).
Characteristics: Has brightly coloured stripes in the filling direction. Often black warp. The colour effects are usually startling or bizarre. Mostly produced in India. Name derived from the Bajadere dancing girl of India, dedicated from birth to a dancing life. The Bayadere costume includes the striped garment, a flimsy scarf or shawl, jeweled trousers, spangles, sequins, anklets.
Uses: Blouses, dresses, after 5 wear.

Fibre: Silk, wool, rayon, synthetics, cotton.
Weave: Crosswise rib, warp faced.
Characteristics: First made of silk in Bengal, India. Ribs are round and raised. Often has wool or cotton dilling in the ribs which doesn't show. Difficult to make bound buttonholes in it. Has a tendency to slip at the seams if too tightly fitted. Grosgrain and Petersham is bengaline cut to ribbon widths. The cloth is usually 40" wide.
Uses: Coats, suits, millinery, trims, bouffant dresses with a tailored look, mourning cloth, draperies. Cotele - A French term for bengaline made from a silk or rayon warp and worsted filling which is given a hard twist.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, cotton, and all others.
Weave: Jacquard and dobby.
Characteristics: Rich, heavy, elaborate design effect. Sometimes with coloured or metallic threads making the design usually against a satin weave background. This makes the figures stand out. the figures in brocade are rather loose, while in damask the figure threads are actually bound into the material. The pattern may be satin on a twill ground or twill on a satin ground. Often reversible. The motifs may be of flowers, foliage, scrollwork, pastoral scenes, or other designs. The price range is wide. Generally reputed to have been developed from the latin name "brocade" which means to figure.
Uses: All types of after 5 wear, church vestments, interior furnishings, and state robes.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, cotton, and synthetics.
Weave: Jacquard - double or backed cloth.
Characteristics: Originally supposed to be an imitation of Italian tooled leather - satin or twill pattern on plain or satin ground. It is recognized by a smooth raised figure of warp-effect, usually in a satin weave construction, on a filling effect background. True brocatelle is a double weave made of silk and linen warp and a silk and linen filling. Present-day materials may have changed from the XIIIth adn XIVth Century fabrics, but they still have the embossed figure in the tight, compact woven warp-effect. While brocatelle is sometimes classed as a flat fabric, it shows patterns which stand out in "high relief" in a sort of blistered effect.
Uses: Draperies, furniture, coverings and general decorating purposes as well as all kinds of after 5 wear.

Characteristics:Was popular in the 14th and 15th centuries. It was a very beautiful fabric which was often stripped with gold or silver. It had a satin base and was diapered like fine linen.

Fibre:silk, made in various qualities
Weave:usually plain with a fine cross rib.
Characteristics:Material resembling taffeta. Widely used in the Middle Ages, but rarely found except for as lining by the 17th century.

Chiffon (French for "rag")
Fibre: Silk, rayon, cotton, synthetics
Weave: Plain
Characteristics: Lightweight, sheer, transparent. Made with very fine, tightly twisted yarns. The tightly twisted yarns could be either in the filling or the warp or both. It is very strong, despite filmy look. Wears very well. It is very difficult to handle when sewing and it is best to baste the pieces over tissue to make it easier. It has slightly bumpy look. It is best suited to shirring, draping, gathering, tucking, etc., because it is so limp. If made in a straight sheath style, it should be underlined with very firm fabric. e.g. faille taffeta.
Uses: After 5 wear, blouses, scarves.

China Silk
Fibre: Silk.
Weave: Originally hand woven in China of silk from the Bonabyx mori. Very soft and extremely lightweight but fairly strong. Irregularities of threads caused by the extreme lightness and softness are characteristic of the fabric.
Uses: Mostly for linings and underlinings, and could be used for blouses.

See wool for general notes. They all have a pebbled, rough feel and appearance. Yarns have a high twist in the filling or the warp or both. Most crepes launder well with care.

Crepe-back satin, satin-back crepe, crepe-satin, or satin-crepe.
Satin weave on the face and a crepe effect on the back obtained with twisted crepe yarns in the filling - 2 or 3 times as many ends as picks per inch. It is a soft fabric which is reversible. It is usually piece dyed. Very interesting effects can be obtained in a garment by using both sides, in different parts. e.g. the crepe side for the body and trim or binding with the satin part up.
Uses: Dresses, blouses, linings, after 5 wear.

Crepe de Chine
Silk warp and crepe twist silk filling 25 x 22. More ends than picks per inch. Has a soft hand and considerable lustre. Made of raw silk or rayon. It is easy to manipulate and handle. Very long wearing. Most of it launders well. It is fairly sheer. Could be piece dyed or printed. Has a slight rippled texture. Heavy crepe de chine is called "Canton crepe" which is slightly ribbed and now mostly made in rayon.

Crepe effect appears in direction of the warp and achieved by alternate S and Z, or slack, tension, or different degrees of twist. Originally a wool crepe but now made of silk and rayon. It is much stouter and more rugged than the average crepe. Has a wavy texture with the "waves" running in a lengthwise direction. Mostly used for prints.
Uses: Dresses and ensembles.

Georgette Crepe
Lightweight, heavy, sheer fabric. Has quite a bit of stiffness and body. gives excellent wear. Has a dull, crinkled surface. Achieved by alternating S and Z yarns in a high twist in both warp and filling directions. Georgette has a harder, duller, more crinkled feel and appearance than crepe de chine.
Uses: After 5 wear and dressy afternoon and weddings, lingerie, scarves, etc. Same uses as crepe de chine.

Flat Crepe
Also called French Crepe or Lingerie Crepe but not exactly the same. It is the flattest of all the crepes with only a very slight pebbled or crepe effect hard twist alternating 25 x 22 in filling; warp has ordinary twist. It is very soft and pliable, which makes it good for draping. It is very light weight - 2 times as many ends as picks. It may be white, coloured, or printed. Most of it launders well.
Uses: Accessories, blouses, dress goods, negligees, pyjamas and other pieces of lingerie and linings.

Moss Crepe
Mossy Crepe or Sand Crepe (trade mark). Has a fine moss effect created by plain weave or small Dobby. Made with a spun-rayon warp and a filament rayon filling. The two-ply warp yarn is very coarse and bulkier than the filling. Mostly made in rayon and synthetics but some in silk.

Degummed Silk
By boiling the silk in hot water, the gum (sericin) is removed from the yarn/fabric. By doing this, the luster of the silk is enhanced. It is very lightweight.

Characteristics: This form of satin has a wonderful luster and a smooth feel. It's thread count is very high.
Uses: Women's wear.

Doupion, Douppioni
Silk yarns made from the cocoon of two ilk worms that have nested together. In spinning, the double strand is not separated so the yarn is uneven and irregular with a large diameter in places.
Fabric is of silk made in a plain weave. The fabric is very irregular and shows many slubs - seems to be made in a hit and miss manner. It is imitated in rayon and some synthetics, and one such fabric is called "Cupioni". Dupion yarns also used in shantung, pongee. Tailors very well.

Fibre: Silk or rayon.
Weave: Figured weave or "burnt-out" finish.
Characteristics: Faconne in French, means fancy weave. Has small designs all over the fabric. Fairly light in weight, and could be slightly creped. Background is much more sheer than the designs, therefore the designs seem to stand out. Very effective when worn over a different colour. Drapes, handle, and wears well.
Uses: Dresses, blouses, scarves, after 5, dressy afternoon and bridal wear.

Fibre: Silk, rayon.
Weave: Crosswise rib.
Characteristics: Has a definite crosswise rib effect. Very soft material that drapes well. Finer than gros grain but in that family - ribs are also flatter than in grosgrain. Some belongs to the crepe family. It is rather difficult to launder. Will give good wear if handled properly. Has a lustrous finish.
Uses: Dresses, blouses, soft evening purses, some dressy coats.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, very fine cotton, very fine worsted.
Weave: Twill, 2 up 2 down.
Characteristics: Very soft, light fabric. Noted for its soft finish and feel. It is usually printed with small figures on a dark or light background. Similar to Surah and Tie Silk, but finer. Was originally imported from India.
Uses: Dresses, robes, scarves, and neckwear of all kinds. First made for the handkerchief trade.

Fibre: Rayon most popular, also mohair and silk and synthetics. The ground or backing yarns are usually made of cotton. Sometimes jute or hemp are combined with the cotton.
Weave: Pile (looped).
Characteristics: Made usually with uncut loops in all-over pattern. It is sometimes patterned by shearing the loops at different lengths. Some made with both cut and uncut loops in the form of a pattern.
Uses: Upholstery, also used widely as transportation fabric by railroads, buses, and airplanes. Frise is also spelled Frieze but frieze really refers to a rough, fuzzy, rizzy, boardy woolen overcoating fabric which originated in Friesland Holland. Often used for overcoating material for soldiers. Much adulteration is given the cloth. Irish frieze is quite popular and more reliable and is called "cotha more".

Glove Silk
Fibre: Silk, rayon, synthetics.
Weave: Knit - two bar doubleknit tricot.

Characteristics: Made on a warp knitted frame. Very finely knit but very strong. Now called nylon Simplex.
Uses: Gloves and underwear. Similar to chamoisette (cotton).

Fibre: Silk.
Weave: Plain.
Characteristics: Very light weight and soft. A little heavier than China Silk, but similar. Sold by weight measure known "momme" (1 momme = 3.75 g). Made from waste silk that can be twisted. It is piece dyed or printed and sized. Has many defects in the cloth which has a "shot-about" appearance but this does not effect the cloth. Comes from Japan - originally woven in the gum on Japanese hand looms. Lighter than shantung but heavier than silk.
Uses: Dresses, coats, shirting, lamp shades, lingerie, curtains.

Fibre: Silk, also from man-made synthetics.
Weave: Plain
Characteristics: The best grade of wild silk. Very similar to "pongee" but finer. Made from wild silkworms raised in the Honan area of China. The only wild type that gives even dyeing results. Do not fit too tightly.
Uses: Dresses, ensembles, blouses, lingerie.

Fibre: Silk.
Weave: Gauze or made on bobbinet machine or knotted.
Characteristics: A very fine, all-silk tulle which originated in France. It has a cobweb appearance. Hexagonal open mesh. Made in 52 inch and 72 inch widths.
Uses: Veilings, particularly for weddings, trimmings.

Fibre: Silk or any textile fibre in which metallic threads are used in the warp or the filling. Lame is also a trade mark for metallic yarns.
Weave: Usually a figured weave but could be any.
Characteristics: French for "trimmed with leaves of gold or silver". Often has pattern all over the surface. The shine and glitter of this fabric makes it suitable for dressy wear. The term comes from the French for "worked with gold and silver wire".
Uses: Principally for evening wear.

Fibre: Silk, cotton, rayon, synthetics.
Weave:Gauze or lino.
Characteristics: Very lightweight, open, sheer, mesh fabric. Wears very well and launders very well. Comes in white, solid colours and novelty effect. Sometimes with a swivel dot or clip spot (marquisette).
Uses: Window curtains, dressy dress wear, such as bridal parties or after 5 wear.

French for "cushioned or padded".
Fibre:Figured made on jacquard or dobby loom, in double cloth weave.
Characteristics: The pattern stands out and gives a "pouch" or "quilted" effect to the goods. Crepe yarn in double weave shrinks during finishing causing a blistering effect. in upholstery, coarse yarns cause blistering. Comes in colours, novelty effects, and some with metallic yarns. Gives good wear and drapes well. If washable, it must be laundered with care. It is very attractive and suits quite plain styles.
Uses: Some cotton matelasse used for bedspreads, dresses, suits, ensembles.

Fibre: Silk
Characteristics: Often believed to be named after the Roman Emeror Claudius' third wife. It is very soft, lustrous and lightweight. It usually comes in solid colours.

Mousseline de Soie
Fibre: Silk.
Weave: Plain.
Characteristics: It is silk muslin. Sheer, open, and lightweight. It is something like chiffon but with a crisp finish produced by sizing. It does not wear well and it does not launder.
Uses: Evening wear, and bridal wear. Trimmings. Also used in millinery as a backing.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, cotton.
Weave: Plain or crosswise rib.
Characteristics: Has a watermarked finish. Fairly stiff with body in most cases. It is produced by passing the fabric between engraved cylinders which press the design into the material, causing the crushed and uncrushed parts to reflect the light differently. The pattern is not permanent, except on acetate rayon.
Uses: After 5 wear, formals, dresses and coats, draperies, bedspreads.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, cotton, synthetics, particularly nylon.
Weave: Knotted, made on a lace machine or gauze or leno weaves.
Characteristics: A mesh fabric made in a variety of geometric-shaped meshes of different sizes and weights. It is very open and light.
Uses: It forms the foundation for a great variety of laces, curtains, millinery, fancy pillows, trims, evening and bridal wear. In cotton, some is used for mosquito netting and screening.

Fibre: Rayon. Synthetics.
Weave: Plain, open mesh.
Characteristics: A sheer, fairly crisp fabric, heavier than chiffon. Much like voile, but more body. The warp yarns are often grouped in pairs. Washes well, particularly in the synthetics.
Uses: Mostly used for curtains, and some for evening or bridal wear.

Fibre: Silk, rayon.
Weave: Plain.
Characteristics: Fine, sheer, lightweight, crisp fabric. It has a very wiry feel. It crushes or musses fairly easily, but it is easily pressed. Dressy type of fabric, sometimes has a silvery sheen.
Uses: All types of after 5 dresses, trimming, neckwear, millinery, and underlinings for delicate, sheer materials, as well as an underlining for other fabrics that require a bit of stiffness without weight.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, wool or synthetics.
Weave: Crosswise rib.
Characteristics:Heavy in weight - larger rib than both faille and bengaline. Very pronounced flat ribs in the filling direction. Ribs are made by a cotton, worsted, silk, or rayon filling which does not show on either the face or the back, because the warp covers the filling entirely. Is called Ottoman Cord or Ottoman rib when a warp rib is employed. Fabric is stiff and cannot be gathered or shirred. Like other ribbed fabrics, it has a tendency to slip at the seams and crack, so it cannot be fitted too tightly.
Uses: Evening wraps, formal coats, dressy suits, dressy afternoon wear, and after 5 wear.

Characteristics: Panne is a French word meaning plush. It resembles velvet but has a much longer pile. It has high luster and is made in silk, silk blends or with manufactured fibres.

Peau de Cynge
Characteristics: The name comes from a French phrase that means "swam skin". Crepe yarns are woven to create a silk textile with high luster. It has a slightly slubbed texture and a good body.

Peau de Peche
Characteristics: The name comes from a French phrase meaning "skin of peach". This textile has a soft nap that is acquired after a finishing process.

Fibre: Silk, cotton, rayon.
Weave: Plain.
Characteristics:Originally from China and originally woven on hand looms in the home. Light or medium weight. Tan or ecru in colour. Woven "in the gum". Some is dyed, but colour is not quite uniform. Some printed. warp is finer and more even than filling. Nubs or irregular cross ribsl produced by uneven yarns. It is woven from wild tussah silk and it is a "raw silk".
Uses: Dresses, ensembles, blouses, summer suits, in a medium weight. It used to be a great deal for drapery linings. Pongee cotton is made of combed yarns and given a variety of finishes.

Rajah (trade name)
Fibre: Silk, rayon.
Weave: Plain - warp yarn is 4 thread organized - filling is heavier.
Characteristics: Made from a tussah silk or certain silk wastes. It belongs to the pongee family of silks. Made from irregular yarns, so has slubs and irregularities but thicker than shantung. it is rather compact and strong. Has a pebble-like feel and appearance. Comes in all colours as well as natural ecru shades, but often warp and filling are different colours (iridescent effect).

Fibre: Silk, rayon, synthetics.
Characteristics: Originated in China (Zaytoun, China - now Canton - a port from which satins were exported during the Middle Ages). Became known in Europe during the XIIth, and XIIIth Centuries in Italy. Became known in England by the XIVth Century. It became a favourite of all court life because of its exquisite qualities and feel. Usually has a lustrous surface and a dull back. The lustre is produced by running it between hot cylinders. Made in many colours, weights, varieties, qualities, and degrees of stiffness. A low grade silk or a cotton filling is often used in cheaper cloths.
Uses: Slips, after 5 dresses, coats, capes, and jackets, lining fabrics, millinery, drapes, covers, and pillows, trimmings, etc.

Double-face Satin
Yarn woven with two warps and one filling, to simulate a double satin construction. Has satin on both sides. Cotton filling is often used in cheaper qualities.

An 8-12 shaft satin. It is a dress fabric. Very fine yarns are used, particularly in the warp with more ends/inch than picks. The material is string, has a high lustre, and texture, and it is firm. Usually 36" wide. Characterized by grainy twill on back.

Paillette Satin
It is characterized by it's changeable colour and is available in a variety of different colours. It was originally executed in silk but is now made with manufactured fibres.

Peau de Soie
Soft, satin-face, good quality cloth. It has a dull lustre. Has a grainy appearance, and is a characteristic in the cloth which may have a single or double face construction. Fine close ribs are seen in the filling direction. With the best grades, the fabric can be used on either side. Lower qualities are finished on one side only. Name means "skin of silk". Some cloth sold as peau de soie is really a de-lustered satin. It doesn't have the grainy appearance. Because of crosswise rib, fabric difficult to ease. Also sold as "de-lustered satin".

Satin on one side and anything on the other. e.g. very good velvet ribbon has velvet on one side and satin on the other.

Satin-back Crepe
A reversible cloth with satin on one side and crepe on the other.

Satin Faconne
jacquard figured fabric with an all-satin weave background. Various types of striping effects are obtained. Jacquard figure on a satin ground.

Slipper Satin
Strong, compactly woven with quite a bit of body. It is used chiefly for footwear. Textures are high and the material comes coloured, black or white, or richly brocaded effects. - Shiniest satin.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, cotton, synthetics.
Characteristics: It is a raw silk made from Tussah silk or silk waste, depending on the quality. It is quite similar to pongee, but has a more irregular surface, heavier and rougher. Most of the slubs are in the filling direction. Wrinkles quite a bit. Underlining helps to prevent this as well as slipping at the seams. Do not fit too tightly, if long wear is expected. Comes in various weights, colours and also printed.
Uses: Dresses, suits, and coats.

Fibre: Rayon (acetate), synthetics, particularly Arnel. Worsted.
Weave: Plain or twill (2 up 2 down).
Characteristics:Has a heavy, semi-crisp texture. It is very smooth and slippery. Has a flat look. It is mostly made in white but some also comes coloured. It wears well and launders well particularly in Arnel. Has a tendency to turn yellow with age, but the Arnel remains pure white.
Uses: All kinds of summer wear. Dresses, suits, and coats. Used extensively for sportswear, for men, women and children.

Fibre: Any fibre.
Weave: Mostly plain but could be various weaves.
Characteristics: Any very light-weight fabric (e.g. chiffon, georgette, voile, sheer crepe).Usually has an open weave. They mostly feel cool.

Triple Sheers
Heavier and flatter than sheers. Almost opaque. Many are made from "Bemberg", which wears, drapes, and washes well. Sheers are used extensively for after 5 wear, as well as afternoon dresses in heavier weights, and some coats, lingerie, curtains, trims, etc.

It is obtained from cocoons of certain species of caterpillars. It is soft and has a brilliant sheen. It is one of the fines textiles. It is also very strong and absorbent.

Spun Rayon
Fibre: Rayon.
Weave: Plain.
Characteristics: Simulated cotton or wool made with staple fibers in a continuous strand to give this effect. Wears well and is washable. Made in different weights. Comes in plain colours and prints. Has soft, fuzzy surface. Blends well with cotton.
Uses: Dresses, suits, sportswear, men's shirts.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, and synthetics.
Weave: Twill (2 up and 2 down).
Characteristics: Soft and flexible. Lightweight and lustrous. Has a decided twill on the fabric. Wrinkles fairly easily. Underlining helps to prevent this, as well as to prevent slipping at the seams. Some have a tendency to water spot. Very similar to "foulard", but heavier.
Uses: Dresses, suits, ensembles, dresses and coats, cravats, ties, scarves, blouses, jacket and coat linings.

Fibre: SIlk, rayon, synthetics.
Weave: Usually plain with a fine cross rib.
Characteristics: A cloth supposed to have originated in Iran (Persia) ad was called "taftah" (a fine silk fabric) - (in 16th century, became a luxury for women's wear). It is made in plain colours, fancy prints, watered designs, and changeable effects. It is smooth with a sheen on its surface. The textures vary considerably. They have a crispness and stiffness. Taffeta in silk will not wear, as long as other high quality silks, since weighting is given the fabric to make it stiff. If it is overweighted, the goods will split or crack.
Uses: All kinds of after 5 wear, dressy evening wear: suits and coats, slips, ribbons, blouses, umbrella fabric. It is quite a dressy fabric.

Faille Taffeta
Made with a crosswise rib weave. Has a distinct rib effect and is usually quite heavy and firm.

Paper Taffeta
Plain weave, very light in weight and treated to give a crisp, paper-like finish.

Pompadour Taffeta
Originally executed in silk. Often has large floral designs in velvet or pile on a Taffeta ground. Occasionally stripes are used instead of flowers. Today it is made with manufactured fibres.

Shot Taffeta
Usually plain weave, woven with one colour in the warp and another colour in the filling, which gives the fabric an iridescent look. If fabric is moved in the light this colour changes. Silk version of chambray.

Tissue Taffeta
Plain weave, very light weight and transparent.

Warp-print Taffeta
Usually a plain weave, the warp yarns are printed before the filling is inserted. The fabric has a very fuzzy design when design is distorted as fabric is woven.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, synthetics.
Weave: Knit, warp knitted. Vertical wales on surface and more or less crosswise ribs on the back.
Characteristics: Has a thin texture, made from very fine or single yarns. Glove silk is a double bar tricot (very run-resistant).
Uses: Underwear, sportswear, bathing suits, gloves.

Fibre: Silk, nylon, cotton.
Weave: Guaze, knotted, leno, made on a lace machine.
Characteristics: Derived name from Tulle, France. First made by Machine in 1768. Has a hexagonal mesh and is stiff. It is difficult to launder. Comes is white and colours, and is very cool, dressy, and delicate.
Uses: It is a stately type of fabric when used for formal wear, and weddings. It is also used for ballet costumes and wedding veils.

Fibre: Silk.
Weave: Usually plain but also in twill.
Characteristics: Made from wild or uncultivated silkworms. It is coarse, strong, and uneven. Dull lustre and rather stiff. Has a rough texture with many slubs, knots, and bumps. It is ecru or tan in colour and it is difficult to bleach. It usually doesn't take an even dye colour. Wears well and becomes more rough looking with wear. It wrinkles a little, but not as much as some. Various weights. Appears in filament and staple form.
Uses: In lighter weights, dresses. In heavier weights, coats and suits and ensembles.

Fibre: Silk, rayon, cotton, synthetics, and a little wool and worsted.
Weave: Pile, made with an extra warp yarn.
Characteristics: Mostly made with a plain back but some with a twill. Some are made with a silk pile and a rayon or cotton back. Terms comes from the Latin "vellus", meaning a fleece or tufted hair. Comes in many types, qualities, and weights. Good velvet wears fairly well and is inexpensive. The cheaper cloths give little service and look well only a few times before beginning to deteriorate. Better velvet may be crush resistant, water resistant, and drapes well. Has to be handled with care, and pressed on a velvet board. Cut all one way. For the maximum amount of depth in the colour, cut with the pile running up. it also wears better when cut this way. Velvet should be cut with very simple lines in the garment, so not to destroy the beauty of the fabric. It has the tendency to add weight to the figure.
Uses: All types of after 5 wear, at home wear, draperies, upholstering.

Cisele Velvet
A velvet with a pattern formed by contrast in cut and uncut loops.

Faconne Velvet
Patterned velvet made by burnt-out print process. The design is of velvet with background plain.

Lyons Velvet
A stiff, thick pile velvet. Used for hats, coat collars, also for suits, coats and dresses, when thick velvets are fashionable.

Nacre Velvet
The back is of one colour and the pile of another, so that it gives a changeable, pearly appearance.

Transparent Velvet (Chiffon Velvet)
Lightweight, very soft, draping velvet made with a silk or rayon back and a rayon pile.

Panne Velvet
Has a longer or higher pile than velvet, but shorter than plush. It is pressed flat and has a high lustre made possible by a tremendous roller-press treatment given the material in finishing. Now often made as knit fabric.

Velvet or velveteen where the pile is 1/8" thick or more. e.g. Cotton velour, hat velour, plush "fake furs".

Utrecht Velvet
Originated in Utrecht, Holland where it was made of silk. It was pressed and crimped to produce a raised effect. Today both mohair and silk are used.

Velvet Satin
A satin weave is used as the base for this luxurious figured silk, made with a cut pile effect.

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